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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
Before I got into the DIY world (which, btw, turned out to be a very addictive hobby) I used to spend a lot of money on commercial products (I still use some Osmosis products, though). As for vitamin C, I started with Skinceutical 20 AOX+, and then Babyface 15% MAP serum. I also tried some products with lipophilic vitamin C as well. I eventually started to create my own DIY C serum.

The problems of hydrophilic vitamin C's (Ascorbic Acid and Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate) from the DIY standpoint are their optimal pH's (AA is acid and MAP is weak alkali) and their poor skin absorption. DIY liposome technology using lecithin does not work for these two potent vitamin C's, because the pH has to be somewhere at 6.3-6.7 for liposomes to form and stay intact (according to DragoN). If you bring the pH to this range, AA will lose its potency and MAP will start to smell foul as if there were something dead in it (according to DragoN's description). So, the only solution would be finding liposomes made out of some other ingredients which have their stable pH either towards the acidic or weak alkalitic direction. I haven't found any so far. As a compromise, I created my own DIY double C serum with 20% ascorbic acid and 7.5% Tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (trying to take advantage of saturation) with cosmoperine and oat beta glucan to improve skin penetration, and started to use it..... I actually love my own serum...

Then I heard about E'Shee 's vitamin C serum. According to their description, it's a serum with liposomal ascorbic acid at 20%. Since it costs about $100 for a small 10ml bottle, I had a high expectation for this. I wondered if they came up with some kind of a new liposomal technology....

It comes with a small vial like 1% lidocaine. You take the metalic top off and put the small nozzle on it. My first thought was, "No consideration for exposure to air? It will oxidize very quickly!". Since the vial is made out of glass, you have to squeeze the small clear nozzle part to squeeze some drops out (kind of inconvenient, I felt). Just looking at, smelling and feeling the yellow viscous serum on my hand, my second thought was "It looks, smells and feels just like my old DIY liposomal ascorbic acid serum.....".

Well, before I learned about the pH discrepancy problems, I was naive enough to try mixing ascorbic acid solution with lecithin. Lecithin obviously brought the pH up away from the ascorbic acid's comfort zone of pH <3.0, so I knew the ascorbic acid had lost some or most of its potency. On the other hand, I knew that the pH was not good enough to create and maintain liposomes, either. The serum was not very bad for texture (a bit runny, though), but it was simply just "Soy lecithin serum".

This E'Shee's vitamin C serum is much thicker and more viscous, but I cannot help finding many similarities there.... Did they just simply mix ascorbic acid and lecithin, with no consideration to pH? I applied it on my face..... I was hoping I'd get the same burning and tingling feeling I get from real acidic ascorbic acid serums..... No burning. No tingling. No hot feeling beneath the skin.....


Since it was expensive, I will continue using it anyway, but I feel I will go back to my DIY double C serum very soon....

Anyone who has used to this serum, kindly share your opinion with me.

JP

 

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It would be great if you posted this detailed account in the reviews section! It's really helpful.
 

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
Thank you, but this is simply my personal opinion, and I may be wrong (And also, English is not my primary language). I personally was not impressed by this product, but there may be some others who love this serum. I'd rather have my review here and have other members throw in their opinions.

JP
 

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Why don't you check out the PH ? That way you'll be able to answer yourself with numbers


By the way... I really like your posts, very inspiring,,, I'm learning from your reasoning very much (I know you are learning too so I'm doing my reading as well just in case
)...

But thanks, very interesting threads indeed
 

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thatz quite interesting Jpshogun.
 

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Interesting synopsis.

I wonder how the company E'Shee explains this discrepancy (as we see it) or if they just do it for the sexxy description and think we are dumb. If it works for you then SOMETHING is right about it tho. But as you say, it might just be an exxy lecithin serum. Im sure we can do better if so.

Kassy has a recipe using tetraC and LAA too in teh DIY recipes section you might be interested in as well.

Like your posts! You clearly put a lot of thought into skincare!



Skin | care | talk
 

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Discussion Starter · #7 ·
A lot of thoughts and.... money, as well (ouch and ugggh).... I wish I could show you the skin care bottles in the bathroom cabinet and the wine fridge. You would be
,
and


I just had a pH meter delivered today (It seems it takes more than a couple of weeks to have anything delivered here in Australia from US....), so I will check the pH of the serum and report on this thread.

JP
 

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Welcome to the club!
Im desensitized to the clutter of my various DIY ingredient bottles, baggies, boxes, and syringes until company comes and then I have to shove everything away out of sight or they would be aghast and think Im a mad scientist.
Oh wait ...



Skin | care | talk
 

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they would be aghast and think Im a mad scientist.
Oh wait ...
Nothing wrong with mad scientists, except the bad reputation for being unkempt and haggard. For some reason I don't envisage you or the other SCT mad science devotees as unkempt or haggard ....
 

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Jpshogun - I know I'm flogging the proverbial here, but - why don't you just use the Osmosis Vitamin C Powder (because you use some of their other products) and combine it daily with some Aloe Vera Gel. It dissolves instantly, has it's own delivery system and never oxidises. It costs around $50.00 but the powder will last over a year or more.
 

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Discussion Starter · #11 ·
Hi Keliu;

I still use some Osmosis products though I'm pretty much living in the DIY world nowaays. I actually do have their vitamin C powder. I tried your approach, but I ended up having the powder all over my table every time (since it didn't come with a scooping device; I looked for one in the jar and ended up making a mess like a dog trying to dig into a bag of flour).

Have you tried their retinaldehyde powder? Since Boost (retinaldehyde 0.2%) will be discontinued soon (I still don't know why) and updated Renew (retinaldehyde 0.1%) does not look attractive as they removed copper tripeptide, I'm thinking about adding their retinaldehyde powder into my DIY serum. My skin seems to love retinaldehyde than retinol...

One of the reasons why I still use Osmosis serums, besides the presence of liposomal retinaldehyde, is that they use Matrixyl Synthe 6, which I seldom find in any other commercial skin care products. You cannot find Matrixyl Synthe 6 at any of the skin care active stores for DIY, either.

Since I'm coming up with my own liposomal super antioxidant serum soon, I may stop using Replenish. I emailed and asked them to add Teprenone, without success. Instead they merely aded Astaxanthin to the updated Replenish. They also removed Spin Trap, as well. I can just put all these into my DIY serum, after all.

I've already stopped using Enlighten, which I believe is a fairly good skin brightening serum, just looking at all the ingredients. According to the info from their customer service, they're just about to come up with a revolutionary skin whitening serum which is neither tyrosinase inhibitor nor MSH inhibitor (they won't tell me any details).

JP
 

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Hi Keliu; I still use some Osmosis products though I'm pretty much living in the DIY world nowaays. I actually do have their vitamin C powder. I tried your approach, but I ended up having the powder all over my table every time (since it didn't come with a scooping device; I looked for one in the jar and ended up making a mess like a dog trying to dig into a bag of flour).

Have you tried their retinaldehyde powder? Since Boost (retinaldehyde 0.2%) will be discontinued soon (I still don't know why) and updated Renew (retinaldehyde 0.1%) does not look attractive as they removed copper tripeptide, I'm thinking about adding their retinaldehyde powder into my DIY serum. My skin seems to love retinaldehyde than retinol...
It's a shame you didn't receive the scoop because it's essential in doling out the right amount of powder - I would have complained. To stop the powder from going everywhere, I transferred about a quarter of it to another (easier to use) container.

No, I'm not using the retinaldehyde powder because I use Retin-A. I don't particularly agree with Dr. Johnson's views on Retin-A - my cynical nature makes me think that he just recommends Retinol because that's all he's allowed to sell (Retin-A being a pharmaceutical).

I'm also not using any other Osmosis products at the moment but will keep on with the Vit C powder because it's cheap and effective.
 

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Discussion Starter · #15 ·
I think the issue with Retin A for me is the frustrating combination of a concern for down regulation and a relatively poor skin absorption. My skin would have no problem even having Retin A three times a day every day (though, of course, i wouldn't do such stupid things). But our body cannot convert retinoic acid back to retinaldehyde, so every time we provide retinoic acid, we're forcing our skin cells to use it up since they cannot store it. That being said, all the retinoids have a poorer skin penetration profile than we think considering their lipophilic nature. So, we believe most of the Retin A we apply ends up staying on the surface of our skin (causing skin irritation on some people). I used to use Retin A every other day, but I had no idea if it was too little or too much, considering these two factors.

JP
 

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Here's a comparison of Retinol vs Retin-A from smartskincare.com

Skin Care Myths and Misconceptions: Retinol vs Retin A

From all my reading (and I'm definitely no expert) the clinical studies are definitely in favour of Retin-A when it comes to anti-aging. It's also my understanding that the reason Retin-A is classified as a pharmaceutical is because it actually does make biological changes to the skin.
 

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Very sorry for going off-topic (I'm always guilty of that!) But just wanted to share this article on Retin-A written by Dr. A. Kligman, one of the foremost experts on Retin-A. I don't have a link, just the saved article so will paste it here because it has some very useful information.

Sorry everyone!!!!!!!!!! The article was so long had to divide it up. But it is worth reading!!!

Topical treatments for photoaged skin - Separating the reality from the hype
Albert M. Kligman, MD, PhD

VOL 102 / NO 2 / AUGUST 1997 / POSTGRADUATE MEDICINE


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This is the second of four articles on skin disorders

Preview: Baby boomers have grown up, and when they look in the mirror, they don't like what they see happening. Those early years under the sun have left their mark--photoaging. Within two decades, more than half of the US population will be over 50, so calls for products that halt the process and repair the damage will not stop anytime soon. In this article, Dr Kligman provides an overview of what manufacturers of drugs, cosmetics, and "cosmeceuticals" offer, along with commentary on the accuracy of their claims.


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Mention of the changes wrought by aging immediately conjures up the image of a face marked by creases, wrinkles, sagging folds, an uneven texture with blotchy hyperpigmentations interspersed with bleached spots, keratoses, and other unsightly manifestations. In the public's mind, this portrait constitutes the ruin brought on by aging, but the fact is that virtually none of these changes are due to the passage of time. They are not inevitable; indeed, they are largely preventable. The dreaded emergence of prematurely aged facial skin is a direct consequence of cumulative insult from ultraviolet radiation, a process now termed photoaging (1).

People are living longer than ever before. For sun-worshipping cultures, this means that the multiple manifestations of photoaging will become progressively accentuated. In addition, photoaging effects are appearing at a younger age, owing to such factors as more leisure time among children, higher attendance at summer camps, and admiration of a tanned appearance.

Cosmetic surgeons have a cornucopia of interventions that can restore a remarkably youthful appearance. However, most people seek topical products to help improve their skin, ideally by reversing some of the structural degradation caused by the sun. The marketplace is bustling with advertisers purporting that their products have marvelous "anti-aging" effects. It can be very difficult to separate puffery from fakery. In many cases, product claims are grossly exaggerated and engender false hope, but in other cases, some products do yield benefits.

Retinoids
Retinoids are the "gold standard" against which all other pharmaceutical remedies for photoaging can be compared. No other known chemicals or drugs can duplicate the diversity of anatomic and physiologic effects brought about by retinoids. Structurally, these substances resemble the parent compound vitamin A (retinol), and they have similar pharmacologic effects.

The best-known topical retinoid is trans-retinoic acid, or tretinoin (Retin-A), which was introduced more than 30 years ago. Other topical retinoids for photoaging are already on the market, and more may be coming that probably will have effects similar to those of tretinoin. For example, a 0.05% emollient cream formulation (Renova) was introduced recently that is less irritating than 0.05% Retin-A cream but equally effective. Another new form is Retin-A Micro, which entraps tretinoin in "microsponges," allowing slow metered release to reduce irritation.

Numerous publications worldwide have documented topical tretinoin's ability to improve the appearance of photoaged skin (figure 1) by reducing wrinkles, decreasing laxity, bleaching hyperpigmented spots, and bringing about a smoother surface, a more uniform texture, and a rosy glow (2-4). Structural changes underlying these cosmetic benefits include correction of epidermal atrophy, deposition of new collagen, generation of new vessels (angiogenesis), and enhancement of mitogenesis (increasing cell turnover). Enhanced mitogenesis promotes shedding of melanin-laden keratinocytes, resulting in bleaching (depigmentation) (5).



Another capability of retinoids is evacuation of materials retained in dilated follicles, which the laity recognizes as large pores. Retained materials include bundles of vellus hairs and microcomedones consisting of horny impactions of corneocytes. Bacteria and yeasts heavily colonize these impactions, distending the orifices and giving the appearance of blackheads.

Additionally, pretreatment with tretinoin for 2 to 3 weeks enhances healing and cosmesis after a chemical or laser peel.
 

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In view of the diverse beneficial effects of topical tretinoin, it is a pity that the drug is so vastly underused. Sales of "antiaging" cosmetics far exceed those of tretinoin. One reason may be the widespread misconceptions regarding the frequency and nature of adverse events, which have kept many physicians from ever prescribing the drug. Many primary care physicians and an embarrassing number of dermatologists do not know how to use tretinoin effectively.

Misconceptions about safety and sensitization
Safety is not a big issue with tretinoin. After decades of use, not a single instance of irreversible side effects, such as scarring, congenital malformations, or systemic abnormalities, has been recorded.

A common misconception is that tretinoin is a photosensitizer. Although initially the face does become somewhat more susceptible to sunburn, this effect normalizes after the drug has been applied for a couple of months. In the meantime, all that is required are simple protective measures, such as avoiding the midday sun, applying a broad-spectrum titanium dioxide-based sunscreen (sun protection factor >15), and wearing a wide-brimmed hat.

A recent review summarizes problems encountered in using tretinoin and offers sensible guidelines for primary care physicians (6).

Patient instructions on application and expectations
With proper instructions, which should take at least 15 minutes to convey and review, topical tretinoin can be prescribed any time of year in any geographic region. Providing written directions to assure proper use and compliance is also helpful. Physicians who cannot allot adequate instruction time to a new patient should not prescribe tretinoin.

Patients should be warned about early, subjective discomfort, such as stinging or burning and sometimes mild erythema and scaling. In fact, patients can use these symptoms as an indication that the drug is working and can monitor the amount of drug to apply by deliberately inducing them. After some weeks, accommodation generally takes place and discomfort ceases.

Tretinoin should be applied at night. A pea-sized amount of cream is placed on each temple and then spread with the fingers over the entire face, including directly around the eyelids where fine wrinkles are common. (Except for transient stinging, no harm comes from getting tretinoin in the eyes, despite excessive cautions included in the package insert.) After application, no other substance or cosmetic should be used that may dilute or chemically inactivate the drug.

Owing to the exfoliating effect of tretinoin, fine scaling and dryness may occur, especially in winter. Applying a moisturizer generously in the morning is helpful. The best moisturizing agent is petroleum jelly, but it is too greasy for most people. It now comes in a creamy version that is almost as moisturizing as the original. Other effective warhorses are Nivea Ultra Moisturizing Creme and Eucerin creams (not the lotions).

A conservative regimen consists of starting with 0.025% tretinoin cream and increasing to 0.05% cream as tolerance develops. Beneficial effects can be obtained more quickly with the highest concentration (0.1%); however, side effects occur more frequently and are intolerable for some patients. In hot weather, some patients prefer gel (0.01% and 0.025%) over oily formulations. The most potent formulation is 0.05% solution, which requires closer monitoring.

Daily applications should continue for about 1 year, after which Monday, Wednesday, and Friday applications are sufficient for most patients; for others, weekend use is adequate. Since the clock never stops turning, treatment continues indefinitely.

Treatment initiation according to sun-exposure history
When to begin treatment depends on the extent of photoaging. Most sun damage to the skin occurs in childhood. Histologic studies in Celts with apparently normal skin type I (ie, skin burns easily and tans poorly) have found that a surprising amount of damage has already been done to the dermal matrix by age 10. Thus, in blond, blue-eyed, light-skinned, freckled, Scotch-Irish persons, tretinoin therapy may be started before puberty if there is a history of sunburns in childhood, even if signs of photo-aging are not clinically evident. Examination of the skin under Wood's light is a simple way to estimate the degree of photodamage, since subclinical freckles and lentigines appear as conspicuous dark patches.

For persons living in sunny areas, treatment begun in the 20s and 30s is advantageous, even in those with skin type IV (ie, dark skin that burns minimally and tans very easily), unless they have a history of minimal sun exposure in childhood.
 

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Chemopreventive effects
Early retinoid therapy is particularly worthwhile for cancer-prone persons, since these agents are known to prevent tumor progression, a process known as chemoprevention. In older patients with photodamage that includes many actinic keratoses and perhaps past basal cell cancers, the combination of nightly tretinoin and twice-daily use of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (Efudex, Fluoroplex) is an effective anticancer regimen (7).

Antioxidants and other "active" agents
Abundant laboratory evidence shows vitamins C and E to be free-radical quenchers. They have been shown in a multitude of in vitro systems to function as antioxidants, which protect cells against ultraviolet radiation. (For a complete review, see Fuchs and Packer (8).) Formulations containing vitamin C, E, or both are available on the market, but for the most part, claims of antiaging effects have not been supported by scientific proof.

Manufacturers profess that recent vitamin C formulations have been modified to increase fat solubility, resulting in enhanced transcutaneous penetration. Vitamin C concentrations of 10% or more result in far higher levels within the skin than can be achieved by any conceivable oral dosage. In addition, vitamins C and E are natural collaborators and participate in reciprocal self-regulating cycles of regeneration. Thus, the scientific rationale for prevention and reversal of photodamage with vitamins C and E is logical. But so far, there is little compelling evidence that such combinations are effective in vivo.

Marketplace momentum is well ahead of scientific fact. Manufacturers claim that vitamin C and E formulations have antiaging effects comparable to those of retinoids. Although this claim has not been validated by double-blind controlled studies, these intensively advertised products are extremely successful, judging by their high sales numbers, even though they probably do nothing more toward improving photodamaged skin than their vehicle alone would accomplish. The marketplace push is toward use of more and more free-radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase, which is often combined with a melange of herbs, minerals, enzymes, hormones, and unpronounceable substances of marine origin.

Cost-conscious buyers should be encouraged to resist these seductive fantasias, which resemble the snake-oil exotica of a bygone era. A working rule is that a formulation will probably not live up to its claims if it contains more than three "active" ingredients. Another dictum is that efficacy does not necessarily correlate with cost; cheaper preparations are often just as effective as expensive ones.

Alpha hydroxy acids
These natural fruit acids, used since antiquity, have recently been "rediscovered" as a topical application to improve the appearance of photoaged skin. They include a bevy of acids that have in common a hydroxy radical in the alpha position next to the terminal acid group. Common examples are glycolic, lactic, and citric acids. (See Van Scott and Yu (9) for a scholarly review of the actions of alpha hydroxy acid.)

Only a few years ago, a simple product from Avon (Anew) containing 4% glycolic acid hit the market with a big bang. Its commercial success was so great that there are now hundreds of manufacturers of alpha hydroxy formulations. Products come in a dazzling and bewildering array of compositions--often two to five fruit acids along with ever more numerous ancillary ingredients, such as vitamins and antioxidants. Claims for cosmetic formulations have increasingly expanded to include myriad benefits under the rubric of antiaging. Scientific evidence to support such claims is incomplete and controversial. Suffice it to say that unrestrained hype has overtaken the entire field of fruit acids. Formulations vary greatly in efficacy, so it is probably wise to stick with well-known manufacturers.

What sober and sensible comment can be made about the alpha hydroxy phenomenon? Clearly, these substances must provide some perceivable benefit to have reached $1 billion in sales worldwide. A proper perspective of the biologic effects of hydroxy acids may be better attained by realizing that they are distributed in three tiers:

Low-concentration (usually not exceeding 10%) mass-marketed cosmetic formulations. Activity is pH-dependent. Products with lower pH (<3.5) show greater efficacy; many formulations have a pH higher than this. Complete neutralization destroys efficacy.
Moderate-concentration (usually 20% to 30%) solutions for light peeling. These are used in salons by aestheticians.
High-concentration (eg, usually unbuffered 70% for glycolic acid) peeling solutions for resurfacing of photoaged facial skin. These are intended for office use by physicians.
One incontestable biologic property of all alpha hydroxy acids is that they enhance shedding of surface corneocytes (10). When corneocytes are retained as loose aggregates in photoaged skin, the surface becomes rough and scaly and feels dry. Exfoliation of old, hard, dried-out corneocytes results immediately in a smoother, more uniform surface, which is readily perceived by touch. Although rapid smoothing of rough skin is the main reason for the phenomenal success of alpha hydroxy acids, prolonged use also leads to moderate bleaching of the mottled pigmentary appearance of photoaged skin, further enhancing surface texture.
 

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Although the improvements fruit acids produce are unmistakable, the mechanism by which they cause corneocytes to detach from each other is not understood. Other vexing questions also remain. For example, is the alpha position of the hydroxy group a prerequisite for efficacy? This structural position has not been proved to be mandatory and, in fact, it is probably irrelevant. There is evidence that any weak acid can induce exfoliation. A case in point is acetic acid, the parent compound of glycolic acid. It contains no hydroxy radical but is as effective as glycolic acid in achieving textural benefits. Of course, its odor is objectionable, but we have it from no less an authority than Cleopatra that vinegar increased her attractiveness.

All alpha hydroxy acids are effective in reducing the excessive scaling of ichthyotic disorders and are capable of removing retained scales. Strictly speaking, they are not moisturizers, but since they are helpful in relieving the signs and symptoms of dry, xerotic skin, they fulfill the requirement for product labeling as a moisturizer. A little-known but worthwhile benefit is that foundation lotions and camouflage cosmetics can be applied more easily and uniformly on facial skin that has been treated for 2 to 3 weeks with cosmetic formulations of alpha hydroxy acids.

Alpha hydroxy acids are moderately beneficial in improving the signs of photoaging (11). Some dermatologists are persuaded that concomitant use of topical tretinoin has synergistic effects. Apart from somewhat increased stinging and burning, the two agents are not basically incompatible. Nonetheless, it would be difficult to show convincingly that alpha hydroxy acids substantially increase the antiaging benefits of tretinoin.

As regards glycolic acid peels administered by cosmetic surgeons, moderate benefits in appearance are obtainable. However, peels are required every 2 to 4 weeks to maintain enhanced textural improvements. The safety of repeated procedures over long periods has recently come under question and is presently unresolved. Although the Food and Drug Administration has expressed concern about possible adverse effects of long-term use of cosmetic formulations, accumulated evidence does not suggest that there is an appreciable hazard. Resurfacing facial skin with an ultra-pulsed CO2 laser is undoubtedly more effective than peel procedures.

Other exfoliant formulations
It should surprise no one that in the highly competitive marketplace of "cosmeceuticals," other exfoliants are being explored and sold. The most venerable one, salicylic acid, a beta hydroxy phenolic acid, has been used for treating such dermatologic disorders as dandruff and psoriasis for more than a century. Salicylic acid, unlike fruit acids, is insoluble in water and has different biologic effects, which may bring added benefits. A newly introduced product line (Oil of Olay Daily Renewal Cream) contains 1.5% salicylic acid in a moisturizing base. It is less irritating than alpha hydroxy acid formulations and is at least as effective. Already, formulations combining salicylic acid and various alpha hydroxy acids are becoming available.

Summary
Most patients have committed the usual folly of recreational sunbathing in childhood, and in adulthood they notice the manifestations in the mirror. Increasingly, they are seeking professional advice regarding the growing stream of products that promise to improve their photoaged skin. Physicians need to be informed about the great range and complexity of products available, if for no other reason than to steer patients clear of traveling-medicine-show products. A better reason is to be able to provide guidance on proper use of formulations that have proven benefit.

The author has served as a consultant to Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation.

References
Gilchrest BA. A review of skin aging and its medical therapy. Br J Dermatol 1996;135(6):867-75
Weiss JS, Ellis CN, Goldfarb MT, et al. Tretinoin therapy: practical aspects of evaluation and treatment. J Int Med Res 1990;18(Suppl 3):41-8C
Olsen EA, Katz HI, Levine N, et al. Tretinoin emollient cream: a new therapy for photodamaged skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26(2 Pt 1):215-24
Kligman LH, Kligman AM. The nature of photoaging: its prevention and repair. Photodermatol 1986;3(4):215-27
Gilchrest BA. Retinoids and photodamage. Br J Dermatol 1992;127(Suppl 41):14-20
Kligman AM. Topical retinoic acid (tretinoin) for photoaging: conceptions and misperceptions. Cutis 1996;57(3):142-4
Robinson TA, Kligman AM. Treatment of solar keratoses of the extremities with retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil. Br J Dermatol 1975;92(6):703-6
Fuchs J, Packer L. Oxidative stress in dermatology. New York: Dekker, 1993
Van Scott EJ, Yu RJ. Actions of -hydroxy acids on skin components. J Geriatric Dermatol 1995;3(A):19A
Van Scott EJ. Dry skin et cetera, corneocyte detachment, desquamation, and neo-strata. Int J Dermatol 1987;26(2):90
Stiller MJ, Bartolone J, Stern R, et al. Topical 8% glycolic acid and 8% l-lactic acid creams for the treatment of photodamaged skin: a double-blind vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Arch Dermatol 1996;132(6):631-6
 
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